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Identify Critical Stakeholders

First, identify the most important stakeholders. Although these will vary for each locality, common stakeholder groups include the following:
  • Internal stakeholders
    • Governing board
    • Independent elected officials
    • Executive managers
    • Collective bargaining groups
    • Employees, more generally
  • External stakeholders
    • Primary users of service (e.g., parents, in the case of a school)
    • Media
    • Influential citizens (business and civic leaders)
    • Financiers (local banks, bond rating agencies)
    • Support groups (PTA, council)
    • Non-governmental organizations (non-profits that work with government or that are influential in the community or neighborhoods)
    • Other governments, especially those that have regulatory oversight or are funding agencies.  

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